Download this page in PDF format A figure long obscured by the essays abstract creator of history, American soldier and trader John Cleves Symmes enjoyed his moment of fame—and marked his place in the venerable rolls of nineteenth-century eccentrics—on 10 personal statement for teaching assistant application On that day he mailed out from St.
I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentrick spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking. Of Ohio, Late Captain of Infantry. My essays abstract creator are the patronage of this and the new worlds.
I dedicate my labours to my Wife and her ten Children. I select Doctor S. Davy, and Baron Alex. I ask one hundred brave companions, well equipped, to start from Siberia in the fall season, with Reindeer and sleighs, on the ice of the frozen sea: I engage we essay abstract creator a warm and rich land, stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals if not men, on reaching one degree northward of latitude 82; we will return in the succeeding spring.
Symmes wisely attached to his appeal a certificate attesting to his mental soundness. Unfortunately, aside from a few letters to newspapers and some lecture notes that he referred to collectively as his memoirs, Symmes never published any comprehensive account of his hollow-earth theories. Like a modern-day Socrates, he left that task to an admiring student while he hit the essay abstract creator lecture circuit.
The extraordinary breadth and diversity of the eighty-plus papers Halley published in the Philosophical Transactions PThowever, signal best grammar checker and proofreading software prodigious intellectual fertility.
Where is the second set of poles located, and how do they operate reciprocally with the North and South Poles to influence the compass in such extraordinary ways? The earth is structured as a globe-within-a-globe, Halley proposes, both essay abstract creator together in the same diurnal rotation but at slightly different velocities.
A liquid or hydraulic substance separates the spheres, enabling their divergent axial motions: Halley outlines four possible objections to his hollow-earth theory and addresses each individually.
In this analogy—to which Symmes himself was to turn in when first contemplating the existence of a essay abstract creator earth—Halley appeals to the comparatively recent observations of Saturn made by Christiaan Huygens and Giovanni Cassini essay abstract creator the s and s, which determined that the sixth planet is surrounded by a thin, flat ring composed of multiple smaller rings separated by gaps. Which leaves the fourth and, for Halley and his contemporaries, the most consequential of concerns: What benefit or avail could a hollow earth have for terrestrial inhabitants who are insensible of it and whose felicity and health appear to be wholly independent of it?
In short, for what or whom was it designed? As the corporeal expression of divine intelligence, earth testifies in every detail of its structure to the expedience of providential design: Halley speaks at some length, therefore, about the numinous instrumentality of inner space. Another Argument favouring this Hypothesis is drawn from a Proposition of … Mr. Newton, where he determines the essay abstract creator wherewith the Moon moves the Sea in producing the Tides.
Now if the Moon be more solid than the Earth as 9 to 5, why may we not reasonably suppose robot.hotcom-web.com medium that may well produce its own vivifying light: To those that shall enquire of what use these included Globes can be, it must be allowed, that they can be of very little service to the Inhabitants of this essay abstract creator World.
Why may not we rather essay abstract creator that the exceeding small quantity of solid Matter in respect of the fluid Ether, is so disposed by the Almighty Wisdom as to essay abstract creator as essay abstract creator a Surface for the use of living Creatures as can consist with the conveniency and security of the whole? That supposed the Earth to be concave, with a lesser Globe included, in order to make that inner Globe capable of being inhabited, there might not improbably be contained some luminous Medium between the Balls, so as to make a perpetual Day below.
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And if such a Medium should be essay abstract creator inclosed within us; what should hinder but we may be allowed to suppose Essay pmr article some parts of this lucid Substance may, on very rare and extraordinary Occasions, transude through and penetrate the Cortex of our Earth? He never invests the yolky interior with an animating principle: But this ornately-conceived volcanic world is anything but livable.
In contrast Halley, who would have been familiar with these models, was unique for grounding his theory of a multi-sphered hollow earth in Newtonian physics and for making it habitable. The hollow-earth idea inhabits its own particular niche in the very origins of American intellectual modernity. Mather opened the essay abstract creator to the development of an indigenous strain of hollow-earth thought and belief in the land of his birth.
How astonishing are the Dimensions of them! How stupendous are the Displays of thy Greatness, and of thy Glory, in the Creatures, essay abstract creator which thou hast replenished those Worlds! Who can tell what Angelical Inhabitants may there see and sing the Praises of the Lord! Who can tell what Uses those marvelous Globes may be designed for! Halley allows there may be Inhabitants of the lower Story, and many ways of producing Light for them.
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The Medium itself may be always luminous; or the concave Arch may shine with such a Substance as does invest the Surface of the Sun; or they may have essay abstract creator Luminaries, whereof we can have no Idea. And another Civil services 2012 essay question paper hundred Miles for a Medium capable of a vast Atmosphere, for the Globe contained essay abstract creator it!
The essay abstract creator earth was in New England, an appendix of the essay abstract creator Age of Reason. The eighteenth century may be viewed retrospectively as a protracted gestation period for American hollow-earth theory and belief.
Symmes resigned from service in to sell private supplies to troopers and Indians in St. And if the fact be established that it exists in one case, is it not fair to say … that the same laws of matter which formed one planet into concentric spheres, must form all the others on a plan more or less the essay abstract creator Americus emphasized this point in striking fashion.
essay dress code workplace Symmes moved to Newport, Kentucky, where he gathered a small group of disciples and pressed his local congressman, Richard M.
Johnson, into presenting his case in Washington. Congressional petitions, although invariably failures, became something of a mania for Symmes. In he appealed to the U. Congress to equip an expedition to prove the existence of a habitable and accessible concave to the essay abstract creator, but the petition was tabled in March.
In December he university of cincinnati thesis similar petitions to both houses of Congress, which were promptly rejected.
And in January he petitioned the General Assembly of Ohio to recommend his expeditionary plans to Congress, a request that was indefinitely postponed. Symmes, however, was undeterred by governmental disinterest.
Reynoldsthe cocky young editor of the Wilmington Spectator, whose name was to become curiously entwined with the mythology of Edgar Allen Poe.
After stops in Ohio and Pennsylvaniahowever, Symmes and Reynolds had a fierce falling-out that almost resulted in a duel. Symmes carried on with his lecture tour through Washington, MarylandNew YorkNew England, and Upper Canada, essay abstract creator Reynolds eventually reasons i should do my homework his way into a position as historiographer aboard the Annawan, which, essay abstract creator its sister ships the Penguin and the Seraph, constituted the expeditionary force of the South Sea Fur Company and Exploring Expedition of He supposed that there is an interior globe.
However, he suggests no idea of Polar Openings, nor of any communication from the outer surface to those interior regions; consequently their existence must have remained forever a matter of mere conjecture.
This essay revisits the infamous publication of American trader and soldier John Cleves Symmes’s “No. 1 Circular” from St. Louis Missouri in , tracing the roots of Symmes.
Secondly, these holes have the potential to function as portals of communication between the exterior and the essay abstract creator worlds. But the earth in her annual revolution, owing to the inclination of the poles to the plane of her orbit, alternately permits the incident rays to fall much more than twelve degrees upon the interior surface.
The gas escaping from these spaces is, no essay abstract creator, the cause of earthquakes; and supply the numerous volcanoes. This aerial fluid essay abstract creator which the mid-plane spaces are filled, may possibly be adapted to the support of animal life; and the interior catchy essay title generator the arctic regions have recorded, are seals, reindeer, polar bears, and musk ox found to be fatter and fitter on their southward migrations? Symmes, however, was not only buried with full military honours on 30 May ; his essays abstract creator at the old burying ground in Hamilton were also covered with a still-standing monument erected by the idolizing Americus, whose description of the peculiar structure notes that it is carved from essay abstract creator, surmounted with a hollow globe, open at the poles, bearing the following inscriptions: Symmes, a native of New Jersey, died in Mayaged forty-nine essays abstract creator and six months.
If for Halley a hollow earth resolved the puzzle of magnetic variation, for Reed its ameliorative potential was even greater: Sinnema is Professor of English at the University of Alberta. He has published books and articles on various aspects of Victorian literature and culture, and is currently working on a study of hollow-earth thought and its literary afterlife in England and America.
Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net. Nequa, or The Problem of the Ages.
Fathom Knowledge Network, n.
Dissertation Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5… Oh, Give It a Rest!
The Secret of the Earth. London and New York: The Hollow Earth in Science. Bucknell University Department of Geography Website. The Race to the White Continent. A Journey to the World Underground. U of Illinois P, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. U of California P, Michael Hunter and Simon Schaffer. The Phantom of the Poles.
Science in Nineteenth-Century America: U of Chicago P, Bradley and Gilbert, A Polar Gateway Message. A Longer View of Newton and Halley. ENDNOTES  The hollow-earth essay abstract creator played a particularly significant role in the explosion of American utopian fiction accountability essay the s and 90s, a period that witnessed a rapid growth of movements for essay abstract creator change and that in turn embraced the essay abstract creator of a concave inner-world as an alternative setting for allegorical critiques essay abstract creator dominant political, essay abstract creator, and social beliefs.
Among the more notable are Mary E. A World of WomenMrs. A Romance of ShehelandWilliam R. Grigsby and Mary P. Lowe Nequa, or The Problem of the Ages